mohammed ali

Wednesday, June 28, 2006

Sumarry Respons #2

L.A. Rail Project
In the article "3 L.A. County Rail Projects Move Ahead," written by Caitlin Liu, she talks about the rail projects in Los Angeles County. She says, "The tunneling project will be a symbolic victory for the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority." In 1990 there was subway tunnel under Hollywood, but later on the digging caused damages to many buildings and there were also many lawsuits. Liu discussed how the tunneling techniques have improved today. They will decrease disturbances. She also mentions how the machines work. Liu informs us that the rail system will be safe. Liu said that the subway digging would be a so-called closed face system that would prevent underground workers from being exposed to any gases that might be toxic. She also states that funding for this project will not be a problem because the MTA board has approved an environmental report on the Mid-City/Exposition light rail. Liu writes that in this project safety is the main issue and it is being approved. This subway will be able to safely transport citizens flexibly throughout the county. Finally, reports that this transportation system will be a big step for Los Angeles County and a great benefit for the people.
Los Angeles County will have a big improvement in there subway transportation system. There is a big project the city is working on. It is for creating transportation services for the people. There are some safety concerns with this project. The biggest issue is safety because of the digging of the tunnels and the funding.
Construction workers have to be very careful when they are building the tunnels for the subway. They have to use cranes and move them over 60 feet deep holes. Some machines are up to 2 million pound. When the workers dig into the ground they have to be careful not to damage buildings and monitor the stability of the ground. Mayor, Antonio Villaraigosa says, "We're going to have the safest tunnel built."
There is funding needed for this project. There is a big concern about how to improve funding methods for this transportation system. If there is funding found then the project will be a big step for Los Angeles County and it will show the area's progress. The mayor of this city is very confident in this tunnel and he says, "This is a dream come true for many of us."

Argument Essay

Mohammed Ali
EAP2

People do not want to wait and depend on a late transportation system. A faster transportation system can be a dream that will come true, especially for people in Los Angeles because it is the largest city in California. It has one of the largest subway transportation systems. Cars are cheaper to buy today so that is one of the reasons why the number of subway riders goes down. There are many ways to the increase the number of subways riders. Increased gas prices will move people to a cheaper transportation situation. Last, if the subway is faster then people will see a clear transportation benefit. If the fee for riding the subway is cheaper people will be more likely to take advantage of this transportation system.
First, raising gas prices will force people to choose to take a public transportation system. People need gas for cars and if the gas is expensive they are going to look for other transportation alternatives sooner or later. If gas prices increase people will start to get tired of monitoring the distance they drive. Having a car is like dealing with a math equation each day. You have to calculate the distance you drive, adding the amount of gallons of gas you will need then totaling it out to the final price, which will equal the word expensive if the gas prices increase.
Second, if there is a faster service created it will be the most convenient for people. If people want to go somewhere faster then there is a way. If the travel time is reduced then that will be a major benefit. That will lead the people who take the bus to think twice and then choose the subway. Lisa Mascaro, Staff Writer of the Valley Edition
found someone who agrees with this and this person stated, “If people are getting to where they want to go faster, then there is a benefit. If the travel time is being reduced, then it is a benefit” (Lisa Mascaro1). Another person talked about how convenient the subway was. It can have a major impact in someone’s life and transportation can control your life. There are many people that use to ride that bus the switched which transportation system to use. For example, “ Roxanna Anderson said the subway can get her from her home near downtown to her job as an administrative assistant in Woodland Hills in about an hour - half the time it used to take on buses and the Red Line subway” (Lisa Mascaro 1). If time is money, then time spent waiting for buses is money lost. People will be able to plan ahead, and their expectation that a train will come very soon after they arrive at the subway station will be fulfilled.
Third, there are many people that can not afford to use public transportation systems because of the cost of the ride. If the price of the ride decreased, a lot of passengers will ride the subway. Some people look at the price to ride and how fast they can make it to their destination. If there is a decrease in the fee to ride the subway then people will be more likely to take it. The transportation system in Los Angeles has to think about the people and their economic situation first. The people want something that is quick and has a good price. The fee to ride the subway should be fixed so that it can be affordable to anyone. “It will greatly benefit the lower and middle income customers who form the majority of the customer base” (Dear City Council 1).

In conclusion, subway is perhaps the most convenient way of transportation in the big cities. In fact, it saves time, and is an affordable mean as well. “Most people cannot afford a private car (or in dense urban areas the cost for parking), so walking, (motor) cycling or public transport are often the only options, with only the latter being viable for larger distances. Public transport can be faster than other modes of travel where a separate infrastructure is used and thus much higher speeds are possible than are permitted on roads.”( Public transport) Meanwhile, big cities mayors and governments should work on improving and promoting subway rides through provide people with on time service as well as cheap one.
Reference:
Mascaro, L. (February 5, 2006) BUSWAY PROVING FRUITFUL; Retrieved on June 23, 2006 from Lexis_Nexis database. Retrieved on June 23, 2006
Public transport[On-line public transportation system database] from
http://portal.cuny.edu/cms/id/cuny/documents/informationpage/002150.htm

Research paper

Although there are many differences about places all around the world, the one thing that all major cities have in common is public transportation. There are many differences of what public transportation looks like and is made up of. The main kind of vehicles consists of trams, buses, metros, and taxis. All of these different types have their own positive and negative aspects in terms of convenience, pollution, and cost. People do not want to wait and rely on a late transportation system. A faster transportation system can be a dream that will come true, especially for people in Los Angeles, which is the largest and the most crowded city in California. In fact, LA has one of the largest subway transportation systems across the U.S. However, the numbers of subway riders are going down these days. The reduction in car prices may be one of the reasons of that phenomenon. “The quality, comfort and timeliness provided by our regional transit system will play a significant role in the number of people who will chose to leave their cars behind, helping to reduce our regional congestion”( ATTRACTIVE PUBLIC TRANSIT). The duration that people spend waiting for a subway might also be responsible for that. Indeed, there are many ways to the increase the number of subways riders. Fortunately, high gas prices will encourage people to use cheaper transportation mean. Moreover, if the subway is faster than other means of transportation, people will see a clear transportation benefit. In addition, people will be more likely to take advantage of this transportation system if the fee for riding the subway is relatively lower than other means. Lastly, there will be an environmental advantage if car use will be limited.
First, raising gas prices will force people to take a public transportation system. People need gas for cars and if the gas is expensive they are going to look for other transportation alternatives sooner or later. If gas prices increase, people will start to get tired of monitoring the distance they drive. “But more important is that the costs of gas is most important cost that is paid on a per-trip basis, so it is the chief cost that weighs on people when they make the decision to take an individual trip. (The other big ones are tolls and parking fees.) Thus, it is the main cost that can affect someone's decision to go for a drive.”(High Gas Prices: A Result of High Demand for Gas) Having a car is like dealing with a math equation each day. You have to calculate the distance you drive, adding the amount of gallons of gas you will need then totaling it out to the final price, which will equal the word expensive if the gas prices increase.
Second, if there is a faster service created then this will be the most convenient for people. If people want to go somewhere faster than they usually do then they should use the subway. In fact, if the travel time is reduced then that will be a major benefit. As a result, people who usually use the bus or drive their cars regularly will think twice and then probably choose the subway.
But why people like to drive their own cars rather than using public transportation? Some people believe that it is the fastest mean of transportation. “Many people have trouble getting to work and school on time when they use public transportation. Most employers and professors do not tolerate lateness and simply fine the tardy employee or dismiss the student from the day's lessons. Also, in many cases, the time schedule doesn't accommodate people's transportation needs. People are getting up much earlier than they should need to in order to get to work on time, then having to sit around for 30 minutes before they can begin work. Or, if they miss a train, they might wind up 30 minutes late. Adding more frequent service will ultimately suit the needs of these people by allowing them to arrive on time and to avoid wasting time.” (Dear City Council 1) People who don’t like to ride the subway often worry of being late. For instance, some people like to ride the bus, but it usually takes long time to reach the place they want. And since they don’t want to be late, so they drive their own cars. Lisa Mascaro, Staff Writer of the Valley Edition found someone who agrees with this. This person stated, “If people are getting to where they want to go faster, then there is a benefit. If the travel time is being reduced, then it is a benefit” (Lisa Mascaro1). Another person talked about how convenient the subway is. It can have a major impact in someone’s life and transportation can control your life. There are many people that use to ride that bus the switched which transportation system to use. For example, “ Roxanna Anderson said the subway could get her from her home near downtown to her job as an administrative assistant in Woodland Hills in about an hour - half the time it used to take on buses and the Red Line subway” (Lisa Mascaro, 2006.P1). If time is money, then time spent waiting for buses is money lost. People will be able to plan ahead, and their expectation that a train will come very soon after they arrive at the subway station will be fulfilled.
Third, there are many people that cannot afford to use public transportation systems because of the cost of the ride. If the price of the ride decreased, a lot of passengers will ride the subway. Some people look at the price of ride and how fast they can make it to their destination. If there is a decrease in the fee of subway ride then people will more likely use it. The transportation system in Los Angeles has to think about the people and their economic situation first. The people want something that is quick and has a good price. The fee to ride the subway should be fixed so that it can be affordable to anyone. “It will greatly benefit the lower and middle income customers who form the majority of the customer base” (Dear City Council 1).
Fourth, if environment were considered, then one of the less pollutant forms of public transportation would be the subway system. These vehicles normally run on tracks that are built in tunnels underground but can also be on ground or even high above the ground. Part of their convenience is that they are unaffected by traffic caused by other types of transportation. Since they are normally underground, and even the ones on ground level are totally independent from other traffic. However like with most buses they run on their schedule and only stop at predetermined destinations if more people rode the subway it could be a minor solution to lowering air pollution. Some people never stop to think about where pollution comes from or some people think that it does not exist. However, “Most of the world pollution comes from power plants, factories and motor vehicles” (Air Pollution 120). There are several cities that have many cars but, “Los Angeles is one of the most car-clogged cities” (Air Pollution 120).Even though power plants and factors contribute to pollution, “Motor vehicles are responsible for 80-88% of the air pollution” (Air Pollution 120). Pollution eats away at the ozone layer. If there is no ozone layer there will be no protection from the sun. The subway is a chance to improve the environment and prevent many harmful future effects.
Most people think sitting in the bus is boring. They can’t listen to music or to talk in the phone comfortably. Consequence, they decide to drive their own car. Also, people who ride the subway are not comfortable if they stay for long time. “Many people don't even consider using subways and buses for their transportation needs. People feel more comfortable riding in their cars or even like to walk. “It's unrealistic to believe people will chose to leave their cars behind for the drury experience of a 19th century subway model of public transportation that denies all that is good, attractive and unique about living in this city, region and century. A more appropriate model for our region’s public transit is our ferry system, which attracts an enthusiastic ridership, whether they are tourists or commuters, by providing an enjoyable experience of our region’s natural setting. We should aspire to quality in our daily movement through the city; comfort and enjoyment should be integral to our forms of public transit, and not just limited to the private automobile, amusement parks and our ferry system.” Other people are afraid to ride the buses and subways because they think the subways stops are uncomfortable and unsafe.” (ATTRACTIVE PUBLIC TRANSIT) In my opinion, government ought to make buss more interesting for riders. If they put in the most buss movie theater, a lot of people will ride the bus.

In conclusion, subway is perhaps the most convenient way of transportation in the big cities. In fact, it saves time, reduces pollution, and is an affordable mean as well. “Most people cannot afford a private car (or in dense urban areas the cost for parking), so walking, (motor) cycling or public transport are often the only options, with only the latter being viable for larger distances. Public transport can be faster than other modes of travel where a separate infrastructure is used and thus much higher speeds are possible than are permitted on roads.”(Public transport) Meanwhile, big cities mayors and governments should work on improving and promoting subway rides through provide people with on time service as well as cheap one.

Wednesday, May 10, 2006

Argument Eassy

Mohammed Ali
EAP2
Tongass National Forest
The Tongass National Forest is the United States’ largest temperate rainforest. This forest covers most of Southeast Alaska. “The ancient spruce trees of the Tongass National Forest are columns that support a forest cathedral” (Tongass National Forest 2005 p.1) These trees have been around for a long time. “The trees in this forest are more than 500 years old and they are over 200 feet high” (Tongass National Forest 2005 p.1). Without these trees the forest life would collapse. “They protect the cedar and hemlock trees behind them” (Tongass National Forest 2005 p.1). Some of the people who depend on this forest are from Alaskan Native tribes. The Tongass is a home for many people. “It is home to about 75,000 people because this is their main source of living, but it is also home to many birds and their nests” (Tongass National Forest 2005 p.2). “In the winter time their canopy is like a warm coat for the animals that live on the floor part of the forest” (Tongass National Forest 2005 p.1). When it snows the trees block the snow from coming down to the bottom so this helps prevent the winter from killing off a lot of the animals. The Tongass gives everyone a lot of great chances to see many different animals, like eagles, bears, salmon, and the beautiful sights of wildlife in Alaska, but you will not be able to see this forest and its wildlife if it is cut down. “Teddy Roosevelt created this forest in 1907” (Tongass National Forest 2005 p.2). And a while ago former president of the United States, Bill Clinton said, “These unspoiled places must be managed through science, not politics.” (Tongass National Forest 2005 p.1). But, in this case it is not so. The Tongass Forest is in danger of not existing anymore for many reasons.

The Bush administration wants to allow logging companies to go in the forest and cut the trees down. They want to take away the protection of the forest. “Although the 2001 Roadless Rule stopped logging and road construction in wild national forests, the administration has taken away the Roadless Rule and stripped these safeguards from the Tongass, opening the way to clearcutting”( Repealing the Roadless Rule n.d. p.1). “The Roadless Rule protects hundreds of thousands of trails across the country -- including significant stretches of the Appalachian National Scenic Trail, Continental Divide National Scenic Trail and Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail. The roadless rule also protects many backcountry areas in the Rockies and the Sierra Nevada” (The Tongass National Forest 2006 p.1)

Logging and roadbuilding in roadless areas can increase fire risks in several ways. If the trees get cut down then sunlight will be able to enter the forest. “Cutting down trees and building roads will open up the forest and let the sunlight and wind come in” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2004 p.1). After that there will be less moisture in the forest. “When this happens the inside of the forest will dry and make it more likely to have a fire” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2004 p.2). There is more damage done when the trees are gone rather than if they stay. “When removing trees, loggers will sometimes leave the materials that start the fires behind; for example, brushes, limbs, twigs, needles, and saplings, which are hard to get rid of” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2). “Opening up forests promotes the rise of brushy, flammable undergrowth in a short period of time” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2004 p.2). The material the logger use also hurt the forest. “Logging equipment is full of soil so that water runs off instead of soaking in evenly to keep soils moist and trees healthy” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2004 p.3). Even if some of the trees are left behind they will not live for a long time. “Logging and roads increase diseases and pests, which damage the trees that are left behind and can make them more flammable” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2005 p.3). And finally, the roads allow more people into the forest, which leads to more fires caused by humans.

People who do not think about the way their actions will affect the forest and the people and animals that live in it are a hazard for all. The rainforest is the home for many people and animals. If the animals do not have homes or food then they do not have a place to stay or anything to eat. And since some people eat animals then how will the people survive if there are no animals? The rainforest is also important because it gives oxygen. Oxygen is something almost every living thing needs. The world is full of continuous cycles.

As mentioned before the Tongass a very important rain forest. The Tongass has already suffered from the destruction of logging. Most of the Tongass's biggest and best trees have already fallen to clearcutting.“Over the last 50 years, logging has destroyed the wilderness values on approximately a million acres of this forest. Nearly half of the total area affected was federal public land, while the other half was made up of state and native corporation land” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2004 p.1). The Bush administration wants to allow logging companies to go in the forest and cut the trees down. The United States Forest Service is also allowing the logging industry to chop this forest down. If this happens there will be no more of Tongass forest and no more animals plants or animals to see or eat. This will affect the entire life cycle in the United States’ largest temperate forest, the Tongass National Forest.

Tongass National Forest

Mohammed Ali
EAP2

The Tongass National Forest is the United States’ largest temperate rainforest. This forest covers most of Southeast Alaska. “The ancient spruce trees of the Tongass National Forest are columns that support a forest cathedral” (Tongass National Forest 2005 p.1) These trees have been around for a long time. “The trees in this forest are more than 500 years old and they are over 200 feet high” (Tongass National Forest 2005 p.1). Without these trees the forest life would collapse. “They protect the cedar and hemlock trees behind them” (Tongass National Forest 2005 p.1). Some of the people who depend on this forest are from Alaskan Native tribes. The Tongass is a home for many people. “It is home to about 75,000 people because this is their main source of living, but it is also home to many birds and their nests” (Tongass National Forest 2005 p.2). “In the winter time their canopy is like a warm coat for the animals that live on the floor part of the forest” (Tongass National Forest 2005 p.1). When it snows the trees block the snow from coming down to the bottom so this helps prevent the winter from killing off a lot of the animals. The Tongass gives everyone a lot of great chances to see many different animals, like eagles, bears, salmon, and the beautiful sights of wildlife in Alaska, but you will not be able to see this forest and its wildlife if it is cut down. “Teddy Roosevelt created this forest in 1907” (Tongass National Forest 2005 p.2). And a while ago former president of the United States, Bill Clinton said, “These unspoiled places must be managed through science, not politics.” (Tongass National Forest 2005 p.1). But, in this case it is not so. The Tongass Forest is in danger of not existing anymore for many reasons.
The Bush administration wants to allow logging companies to go in the forest and cut the trees down. They want to take away the protection of the forest. “Although the 2001 Roadless Rule stopped logging and road construction in wild national forests, the administration has taken away the Roadless Rule and stripped these safeguards from the Tongass, opening the way to clearcutting”( Repealing the Roadless Rule n.d. p.1). “The Roadless Rule protects hundreds of thousands of trails across the country -- including significant stretches of the Appalachian National Scenic Trail, Continental Divide National Scenic Trail and Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail. The roadless rule also protects many backcountry areas in the Rockies and the Sierra Nevada” (The Tongass National Forest 2006 p.1)
The Roadless Rule is suppose to protect forests. “The Roadless Rule is an administrative rule that was issued by the United States Forest Service in January 2001 to protect the last remaining wild lands in the national forest system in United States” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2004 p.1). Some of the land is left out so that loggers cannot touch it. “It places about one-third of the national forest system's total acreage off-limits to virtually all road building and logging” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2004 p.1). However, more than half of the United States’ national forest land is already experiencing this activity. “This protection is the only way to spare roadless areas from the severe damage that roads and intense development like clearcut logging have done to other parts of our national forests” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2004 p.1). The Bush administration has been trying to get rid of this rule ever since he became president. “For example, the administration has repeatedly refused to defend the rule in court, and in December 2003, Bush officials (temporarily) exempted Alaska's Tongass rainforest -- our largest national forest -- from roadless protections and they are now moving forward with approximately 50 timber sales in Tongass that would violate the rule” (Repealing the Roadless Rule n.d. p.1). “The Tongass Rainforest alone accounts for more than nine million acres of the 58.5 million acres of national forests covered by the Roadless Rull. But on December 23, 2003, the Bush administration exempted the Tongass from the rule” (Repealing the Roadless Rule n.d. p.1). The administration is continuing with the sale process. “And now the administration is working on many huge timber sales for the forest's roadless areas” (Tongass and Chugach 2003 p.1). “There was a comment period before the final decision to get rid of the Tongass and about 250,000 comments went against the rule” (Repealing the Roadless Rule n.d. p.1). This is a big cost for American taxpayers. Without the Roadless rule the federal government would still have the authority to decide the fate of the United States’ national forest.
National guidelines for managing roadless areas are needed for many reasons. “The local decision-making can actually be a big threat to the remaining wildlands because they are made out in the field by agency officials who do not always take into account cumulative impacts across the national landscape -- or the real value of disappearing wildlands to the nation as a whole” (Tongass National Forest 2006 p.2). In the past, leaving the fate of the wildest forest areas in the hands of local officials has resulted in a large-scale loss of wildlands. The federal government created national forests to stop forest destruction at the hands of local interests. But, now more than half of the national forest system has been roaded and developed. The roadless rule was designed to make sure that short-term motivations and local issues do not determine the future of the last remaining unprotected forestlands.
Some people think that road-building and logging in these backcountry areas are important ways to reduce or prevent wildfires. But, in fact, roadless areas serve as buffer zones that help prevent wildfires. “Forest Service studies have found that large fires occur much more frequently in areas that are already roaded than in roadless areas covered by the rule” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2004 p.3). Wildland fire caused by humans is more likely to occur on roaded lands than on unroaded lands. “According to a 15-year study by independent scientists, large wildfires are more likely to occur and to burn to greater extents in areas outside of roadless areas” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2004 p.3).
Logging and roadbuilding in roadless areas can increase fire risks in several ways. If the trees get cut down then sunlight will be able to enter the forest. “Cutting down trees and building roads will open up the forest and let the sunlight and wind come in” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2004 p.1). After that there will be less moisture in the forest. “When this happens the inside of the forest will dry and make it more likely to have a fire” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2004 p.2). There is more damage done when the trees are gone rather than if they stay. “When removing trees, loggers will sometimes leave the materials that start the fires behind; for example, brushes, limbs, twigs, needles, and saplings, which are hard to get rid of” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2). “Opening up forests promotes the rise of brushy, flammable undergrowth in a short period of time” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2004 p.2). The material the logger use also hurt the forest. “Logging equipment is full of soil so that water runs off instead of soaking in evenly to keep soils moist and trees healthy” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2004 p.3). Even if some of the trees are left behind they will not live for a long time. “Logging and roads increase diseases and pests, which damage the trees that are left behind and can make them more flammable” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2005 p.3). And finally, the roads allow more people into the forest, which leads to more fires caused by humans.
Tongass will be cut down because of The United States Forest Service is also allowing the logging industry to go in. Loggers have been able to go in the Tongass and cut down trees for many years. “For over 50 years, private logging companies have had access to the biggest and best trees in our country's largest public forest -- subsidized by tax dollars -- leaving Americans to foot the bill” (Tongass National Forest 2006 p.1).The U.S. Forest Service offers to sell trees for less than what they are worth. American taxpayers are paying the bill to prepare the sales, and build and maintain the logging roads in the Tongass National Forest. “Already, over 5,000 miles of roads crisscross the Tongass and the Forest Service has plans to build over 1,000 additional miles of roads” (Tongass National Forest 2006 p.1) “America's cities sit in gridlock while the Forest Service spends millions of tax dollars building roads into the rainforest so the timber industry can cut down our trees” (Tongass National Forest 2006 p.1).
People who do not think about the way their actions will affect the forest and the people and animals that live in it are a hazard for all. The rainforest is the home for many people and animals. If the animals do not have homes or food then they do not have a place to stay or anything to eat. And since some people eat animals then how will the people survive if there are no animals? The rainforest is also important because it gives oxygen. Oxygen is something almost every living thing needs. The world is full of continuous cycles.
The Tongass National Forest is many things to many different people. “Fishermen, recreational and commercial, rely on the fresh water streams of the Tongass to provide ample spawning grounds for all 5 species of Pacific salmon” (Tongass National Forest 2006 p.1). This forest provides food for a lot of people. “Local businesses depend on the beauty of the Tongass to attract millions of visitors and their tourist dollars each year” (Tongass National Forest 2006 p.1) Tourism helps keep the economy stable. “Hunters rely on the Tongass to provide habitat for Sitka black-tailed deer and other game species” (Tongass National Forest 2006 p.1). Scientists need the forest to continue their research. “Scientists rely on the Tongass to look at the ecosystem which has remained virtually unchanged since before Columbus landed in America” (Tongass National Forest 2006 p.1). Native people rely on the Tongass to provide food and spiritual meaning.
As mentioned before the Tongass a very important rain forest. The Tongass has already suffered from the destruction of logging. Most of the Tongass's biggest and best trees have already fallen to clearcutting. “Over the last 50 years, logging has destroyed the wilderness values on approximately a million acres of this forest. Nearly half of the total area affected was federal public land, while the other half was made up of state and native corporation land” (The National Forest "Roadless Area" 2004 p.1). The Bush administration wants to allow logging companies to go in the forest and cut the trees down. The United States Forest Service is also allowing the logging industry to chop this forest down. If this happens there will be no more of Tongass forest and no more animals plants or animals to see or eat. This will affect the entire life cycle in the United States’ largest temperate forest, the Tongass National Forest.











Reference:
The National Forest "Roadless Area". (2004). National Resources Defense
Council. May 2, 2006
Repealing the Roadless Rule. Heritage Forests Campaign. (n.d.)
May 2 2006
Resourses At Risk. ECOISP. (n.d.). http://www.ecoisp.com May 2, 2006.
Tongass and Chugach:Bush Administration Guts Protection of Tongass National
Forest in Alaska. (Decemeber 2003). The Wilderness Society.
http://www.wilderness.org May 3, 2006
Tongass National Forest. (May 18, 2005) http://www.fs.fed.us May 2, 2006
Tongass National Forest. (n.d.) http://www.savebiogems.org/tongass/
May 2, 2006.
Tongass National Forest 2006.
http://www.lcv.org/president-and congress/issues/page May 8, 2006

Tuesday, May 02, 2006

Mohammed Ali
EAP2
Summary Response#1

The article” Alaska native corp., having cut most of its own timber, seeks to manage Tongass harvests.” by Natalie Henry shows that people who live in Alaska want to make benefit of forest’s timber in Alaska. The writer proves that Sealaska wants more money because they think their income is not enough. According to the article, some people in Alaska reject the step of Sealaska. The author believes sealaska is cutting the timber very fast, so they will lose their timber in a few years. Therefore, they want to get public timber. The article shows that the government may give them land as long as they just choose land from 170,000 areas chosen by Congress. However, they disagree because they want to get land outside the nine designed area. Finally, the writer thinks the forest service might give the state around 2 million acres of the Tongass.

The forest in Alaska makes a lot of money. As result, the government should take care of it. There are some rules that the administration must apply to reduce the problem and secure and make great income.

The lawmaker should give some land to the people who live in Alaska because it implies their basic rights. In fact, it doesn’t mean they should get all the land. They have their own area. It is an extensive locale. Moreover, they should make a great strategy to get bigger benefit.

` The government ought to separate the area. It has to divide the area equally because Alaska people have the main responsibility if they deplete the timber, oil, or other natural resource. After that, the command can focus on its own area and make vast profit. The separation will be good for both of them. It will reduce a lot of problems. Also, it will help both of them to recognize the income.

The government has to be strict. It can’t let them do whatever they want. The leadership has a lot of responsibility. It has to pay for the army, reform, and poor people. It could not do these missions without money. As result, the government should be able to get the benefit from Alaska’s land.

In conclusion, the forest in Alaska is a huge land. Therefore, the government and the people in Alaska can make a lot of money. They must not be selfish. They have to understand each other. Finally, it is better for them to talk and solve their problems as soon as possible, since they can improve their income.

Reference: Henry, NM. (2005,Nov17) Alaska native corp., having cut most of its own timber, seeks to manage Tongass harvests. Retrieved on (Mar 26, 2006) from Lexis-Nexis

Friday, April 28, 2006

Tongass beings developing new management plan

The article “Tongass beings developing new management plan” shows that officials in Alaska’s Tongass Forest are required by a court decision to create a new management plan for the rain forest. Previously the officials spent 16 million dollars on the old plan and had little effect. The officials now think the money could be put to better use. The new plan is required because the officials from Tongass lied about the demand for logging from the forest. Forrest Cole, a Tongass supervisor, wants the Tongass to be clearer about the demand for logging for future economics. The Tongass can still operate under the old plan until the new plan is required in 2007 which upsets local environmentalist. The Tongass agency also uses the Reagan-era planning rule instead of the new rule made in January of 2005. This rule requires managers to put social and economic considerations with concern for the sustainability of the ecosystem. In order to assist with local environmentalists the state of Alaska will assist with the Tongass agency in creating the new plan.

I believe in order to solve the problem between the Tongass agency and the local environmentalists a few issues need to be resolved. First a new plan must be created before the agency can continue to log, someone outside the agency should report the demand for logging, and finally the agency should be more open with the environmentalists. These small and simple ideas could solve the conflict immediately with little effort.

One reason that upsets the environmentalists is that logging can continue until the agency provides a new plan in 2007. The agency should either be required to stop logging until the new plan is created. This would force the agency to finish the plan sooner, also would force the agency to spend more effort in creating the new plan. The sooner plan is released the sooner the environmentalist can be satisfied with the agency.

Another issue is that fact that the agency lied about the demand for logging. This can be resolved by requiring that someone outside the company should report the market demand for logging. This would be a fair solution and would leave no room for error in the truth about the market.

The last issue deals with the relationship between the environmentalists and the agency. Once a new plan is approved the agency should be more open to suggestions from the environmentalists. This would ease the tension between the two groups and would make the environmentalists feel like they have some input on the agencies decisions.

In conclusion, stopping the agency from logging until the new plan is created, having someone outside the company report the market demand for logging, and better communication between the two groups can help solve this issue. These issues are easy to fix and can help these two groups in the future when solving similar problems.

Reference: berman, D. (march 23, 2006) Tongass begins developing new management plan. Retrieved on April 20, 2006 from lexis-Nexis.

Mohammed Ali
Eap2
3/27/2006

Polar bears drown as ice shelf melts

The article “polar bears drown as ice shelf melts” by Will Iredale shows that polar bears are killed when they are looking for food. Their foods become farther and smaller. Therefore, they have to swim a lower distance which causes them to drown. The author proves that polar bears get hurt even though they are strong swimmers. When the temperature becomes more increasing, a lot of bear carcasses are found. According to the article, in the future, the deaths of polar bears might increase. Moreover, a lot of studies have proved that the population has dropped. The author thinks polar bears life is on ice, so if the ice pack retreats bears must travel. The average of swimming for a short swim reaches up to 15 miles. The writer believes that storm makes polar bears drown. Finally, he considers that water becomes greater every year.

I live in Yemen, which is in southwestern. I never seen or heard about polar bears. Therefore, I don’t have experience with polar bears. I know that Polar bears are poor animals, and we should worry about them. However, I don’t care about them because it wastes a lot of money and time, and it is difficult to find a solution to help them.

I think we should help poor people before we help polar bears. There are a lot of people who do not have enough food. They are killed everyday. In some countries in Africa, people sell their children to get some money to buy food. The reason they sell their children is they don’t have money to feed and carry their children. I am shocked when people talk about polar bears and they don’t say anything about poor people. In my opinion, we must help the humans first, and then we can move to help animals.

Time is very important thing in our life. We should not waste our time for something not essential. We ought to get benefit from our time. For instance, we should think about building or reforming companies which are good for us in the future. It is better than wasting our time thinking about polar bears. It is not worthwhile to loss your time for polar bears. We have to focus of something that makes income in the future.

Polar bears have a lot of problems. It is difficult to solve these problems. In other words, it is impossible to solve all their problems. We should solve our problems before we solve polar bears problems. For example, there are a lot of crimes in the world, like murder, robbery, stealing, and war between people. We must focus on the things that cause these crimes and try to find solution. After that, we can solve polar bears’ problems.

In conclusion, I know that polar bears have problems, but the humans have more problems than polar bears. If we going to help polar beare, we will lose a lot of money and time, and it is complex to discover a resolution for them. Finally, I am not against the idea of helping polar bears, yet my opinion is that human’s problem are more important than polar bears ‘ problems. As result we have to solve our problems, then we can help polar bears.

Reference: Iredale, W.(2005, Dec 18) polar bears drown as ice shelf melts. Retrieved on march 27,2006 from http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2087-1938132,00.html.